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Lodging of plants on the field

Added Tue, 20/12/2016
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It is believed that the phenomenon of "circles" has been known for about 400 years. All formations are known for this period, by origin can be divided into two types: natural and artificial.

Annually, researchers, journalists and witnesses encounter a lot of strange shapes in the fields. It's happening everywhere. Often the pattern has no apparent logic, but the skillful application of imagination it can be. As a rule, the cause of the formations is one or more natural factors.

Natural shapes in the fields are the result of lodging of the plants. The reasons causing these phenomena include:

  • weather conditions (wind, precipitation, illumination, ambient temperature, spectral composition of light, etc.);
  • soil characteristics (humidity, chemical composition, etc.);
  • deviations from the process regulations of growing (unbalanced diet, poor layout of checks, untimely discharge of water, high infestation of weeds and density of crops);
  • anatomical and morphological characteristics of the variety;
  • the contamination with microorganisms, pests, etc.

To determine the exact cause of lodging is necessary, in addition to a cursory inspection of figures on the field and down the plants, conduct some additional tests.

 

Typical view in the natural lodging

Lodging - a condition in which the growing stem of the plant collapsing, bending or nallamala stem.
There are two types of lodging.

The first type is basal lodging. It can occur at the beginning of booting with an excess of nitrogen in the soil or too high a seeding rate. Its probability depends on the characteristics of the structure of not only stem, but also the vagina of the third sheet.

Root lodging (figure) and the picture down during the ripening of the corn, damaged by the Western corn root beetle diabrotica as an illustration [6]

In the case of root lodging plants lose vertical stability due to the weak adhesion of the root systray with the soil. The wind, in this case, knocks the plants, pulling out the roots that can cause lodging even in resistant varieties. Lodging of plants in this case can be caused by strong winds, even in dry soil and lack of rainfall.
The second type stebleve lodging. It is connected with insufficient development of the mechanical tissues of the third, fifth and especially the upper-most internodes. Resistance of stems to bending and breaking from different varieties varies.

Stebleve lodging
If stalk lodging is bending and sometimes even breaking the straws at the base due to the mismatch between the dynamic loads on the lower part of the stem and its strength. Stebleve lodging can be caused by a breakdown of the straw at the level of the third or fourth internodes in the milk stage and is the result of a partial collapse of the cell walls of the stem and outflow of plastic substances in the grain. Note stebleve lodging occurring as the result of loss of turgor by the cells of the stem at the transition from wet spring to dry summer.

 

Stebleve lodging (figure)

For example, lodging of wheat is observed in different phases of development of plants, most often at the end of the phase of milk ripeness, when the ear has the greatest mass. During this period under adverse conditions (heavy rain and wind, high soil moisture) lodging of wheat usually occurs in the bend of the second internode.

 

 

Ears can have the characteristic curves in the caper.

In the study of the lodging of the grain is comparatively studied anatomy and physiological characteristics of the growth of internodes.

In some plants it is sometimes elevated upper internode bearing the ear, and in the upper nodes formed curves — and therefore raised the tip of the straw with the ear. All this (twists in knots and caused by them raising the top with a spike) occurs, if the down stem is not yet finished growth (above-ground stem grows, in whatever position he may be, in the direction from the center of the Earth).

Between the strength of the lower internodes, the internal structure of the stem, its anatomical structure has a direct relationship.

 

A cross-section of the stem of rice varieties Visit (histology): 1 – epidermis; 2 – sclerenchyma; 3 parenchyma; 4 – conductive beam (outer ring); 5 – conductive bundle (inner ring) [1]

So, prone to lodging varieties are characterized by a stem with a narrow ring of mechanical tissue and a small number of vascular-fibrous bundles. Weakly decumbent and resistant to lodging varieties have a wide range of mechanical ring and a large number of vascular-fibrous bundles. [2]

 

For the effect of the wind is characterized as clear and smooth boundary transitions from a fallen plant parts to standing.

It is possible to identify a number of characteristics peculiar to natural lodging and distinguish it from the artificial formation:

 

  • Flattened stems are at a small distance from the ground. This distance may vary in different areas of the picture.
  • Formed figure do not have a clear logic and form, the fragments are randomly scattered around the field.
  • The stems can be flattened in different directions, sometimes the "pigtail", the pattern may be twisted into a spiral or to go straight a few meters. Thus a clear logic and laws in it is not detected.
  • Stem of plant is mainly not refracted, often has a characteristic curves in the caper.
  • Lodging does not lead to wilting and death of plants (if the cause of lodging was not caused by plant diseases or pests, and if the mechanical impact did not lead to fracture of the stem).

Conclusion

Many so-called "circles" have natural causes, which are easy to identify. The information presented in this article will help you to filter such formations are formed by natural layering, natural from other "circles" (for example, formed by the mycelium), as well as man-made (artificially formed), even a cursory examination of the field.

It is worth noting that one of the hypotheses is a natural lodging of plants on the field was the cause of the origin of the phenomenon of "circles on the field."

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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