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History of the conquest of the sea

Added Fri, 06/01/2017
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With the anomalous phenomena in water areas is associated with many myths and legends. From unusual creatures, and ghosts, and even UFOs. All these legends will be written review articles.

At the moment on the website there is an article devoted to NGOs - unidentified floating objects, or unidentified underwater objects. To understand the possible explanation of some of the legends, as well as to the researcher it was easier to navigate in the dates of travel and types of ships, below we give the main points of the history of navigation. Information we take from open source, where the events can be read in detail.

As more detailed information sources we can recommend the Ship's portal, site of the World ocean and the Marine encyclopedia.

 

History of the conquest of the sea (timeline)





Sailing or sailing - the movement of goods and persons by water. It is divided into coasting i.e. coastal or far.

The development of shipbuilding

Reliable data on shipbuilding and shipping have an age of six thousand years. But there is no doubt that long before this, people already knew how to move through the water using different floating objects. In ancient times for fishing in the open sea, people used rafts made of reeds, then the boats of animal skins, and later canoes and canoe hollowed from a tree.

 

A raft and a primitive tamping Chelny

Ruled by rafts and boats the sixth, subsequently the paddle. In the early period of civilization appear rowing boats (6-4 thousand years BC).

 

Egyptian sea vessel

Who and when first put on the ship sail is unknown. I assume that it happened 5 thousand years BC. The word "sail" comes from the Greek "Pharos", which means "cloth", "cloth". The sails were made of linen or cotton (now the most common synthetic material "Dacron"). Sails on the wooden masts could disperse a court to speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour.

The first naval cargo ships appear to 3-1 Millennium BC To 1st Millennium BC begin the long sea voyage. In the 6th century BC the Phoenicians sailed around the African continent, the Carthaginians rounded the Iberian Peninsula, the Greeks sailed on the Indian ocean. In the 6th century BC in sailing begin to use scientific discoveries. Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus discovered the possibility of orientation of the constellation URSA Minor. Greek astronomer Eudoxus of Cnidus (408-355 BC) first explained the movement of planets using a mechanical model that made it possible to make maps. Mathematician Anaximander (610-546 BC) made the first geographical maps. In 7-5 centuries BC was invented the iron anchor.



The first major change in sailing ships antique weapons date back to 2-1 century BC and Then on some of the Roman courts began to apply the additional sloped masts with the second rectangular sail small size (Artemon). Windage did not increase by the military and on merchant ships, as a lot of rowers in them to the detriment of the goods carried to be not profitable.



The next important step – the use of triangular sails attached to the strongly inclined forward Rey. Such a sail is called Latin, although the Romans borrowed it probably from the Arabs in the 4th century BC With him the ship could go in a side and head wind, changing tacks. The most common type of sailing and rowing vessels in the Mediterranean becomes Galera. (The last time galleys were involved in the fighting in may, 1828, during the Russo-Turkish war).



French inventor Geoffroy d Abban eventually decided the problem of transmission of energy from the impeller (its a primitive boat on the river DOE in 1778 passed a certain distance against the current). After 10 years, established in 1787, the ship "Perseverance" sailed for the Delaware river at a speed of 6 km and It was equipped with a propeller — invention, which was patented two years earlier by the Englishman Brace.

His fellow mining engineer William Symington — managed to build a steam boat. He soon constructed a two-wheeled steamboat. The wheels of the machine were arranged not in parallel but one after the other in the middle of the ship. But serviceable steam boat, he was only created in 1801



With 1877 as a building material began to be used not only iron but also steel. Every year, the end of XIX century was marked by any progress in the field of shipbuilding (improved steam screw increased the capacity of the steam units, etc.). The world was seized with the fever of competition for building the fastest and largest steamers.



In 1858, shipbuilding has experienced an event of the century: the stocks went first ocean giant "great Eastern".

The first constructor, set on his experimental steam turbine ship was the Charles Algernon Parsons.

 

The world's first perturbed "Turbine"

In 1860, John elder of Glasgow made the first attempt to introduce the English merchant fleet of the compound machine.



Turbine has become a leader of high speeds on the water. With its help, for example, a torpedo-boat fighter of the Navy "Cobra" developed a speed of 31.1 node. In 1904 its first ship with a steam turbine was built by the German shipbuilders.



For 22 years from 1907 the fastest means of transportation on water was considered to be the steamship "the Mauritania". Engine power was 78 000 HP in 1929 speed, the primacy passed to the turbine ship North German Lloyd Bremen. It demonstrated a speed of 27.5 knot. More turbine could not give.



But the new age demanded more record-breaking speeds. Soon courts began to install a diesel motor. And in 1937 on the diesels went for half of the world fleet.

Submarine fleet



The idea of a submarine vessel has its roots in ancient times. There are suggestions that in the IV century BC, Alexander the great used something similar to a diving bell for intelligence purposes, what remained of the evidence in the paintings of a later time.

The invention of the first scuba suit was attributed to Augustus Siebe, but he was only one of several inventors of that time who conducted similar experiments. Thus, in 1823, the brothers John and Charles Dina, has received a patent for "smoke machine", intended for use by the fire Department. In 1840, in a diving suit was added to the exhaust valve, so there was a full length diving suit.

Submarines

The first successfully functioning submarine was a rowing submarine Dutch mechanics and physics of the early XVII century Cornelia van of Drebbel built in London for 12 rowers and 3 officers, the chronicle says that the king James I was among these officers. To absorb the tainted breath of air, the inventor prepares the liquid, the details of the recipe which have not survived.



Mersen Jesuit (1634) wrote an essay on "the Necessary conditions for diving"; among the established principles contained the following comments: he advised to build a submarine like a fish, with both ends equally sharp to do; the material should be copper; do not ask the large size of the boat; the access hatches positioned so that people feel comfortable to come out at a critical moment; to illuminate the inside of a submarine phosphorescent bodies, so as not to spoil the air. For communication with the atmosphere, he offered the pipe reaching the surface of the water. Contemporaries were indifferent to the ideas of Mersenne, but subsequent inventors often enjoyed his writings and thoughts.



In 1653 in Rotterdam was built a submarine with a length of 72 ft., width 8 ft. and a height of 12 ft. The bow and stern are represented quadrangular pyramid. In the center of the ship housed a wheel with rotating blades between impervious bulkheads.



In Russia under Peter the great, peasant and self-taught Efim Nikonov in 1718-1728 years was engaged in the construction of the "secret ship", but all his work ended in failure.

In 1796 Custer presented the French government a project of submarine and assigned to the destruction of the English courts. Description this vessel was published in 1810.



Robert Fulton (1800g.) built a successful model of a submarine, improved type Busnela and presented it in 1800 Bonaparte. The submarine was built in Rouen and was tested in the spring of 1801 at Le Havre; it could accommodate three people. The first dive, the Fulton a sailor went under water a considerable distance and remain under water up to 20 minutes.

 



Le Gimnote - Imnot" The Zed, 1889



The beginning of the XXI century has revealed a tendency to shift away from diesel as the engine. Most of the newest projects of NNS based on full electric propulsion, and the most progressive projects for the economical use of the Stirling engine airindependent engines and fuel cells.

Travel

The human desire to discover the unknown, expand their territories pushed him to travel to distant places. Committed sailors and travelers discoveries have allowed science to accumulate enormous material on the history of mankind. Let only some of them.

In the mid-sixth century BC, a sailor of Mescalin Evcimen was held on the West coast of the continent from Gibraltar to the Senegal river.



Further, the movement was carried out along the coastline or on the Islands under the condition that the land was visible.

In 1298, the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo dictated while in prison, his "Book about the diversity of the world", which in XIV—XV centuries became one of the first guidelines for cartography in the countries of Central, Eastern and southern Asia. It was required reading of many outstanding cosmografo and navigators. A very important role the book played in the history of geographical discoveries.



One of the greatest events of the XVI century is traveling (1521) Magellan, who first sailed around the world and crossed the ocean which he named Pacific. Magellan proved the existence of a single World ocean, and provided practical proof that Earth is a sphere.

Related devices

Lighthouse — a means of navigation equipment of the coast of large reservoirs in the form of a capital construction, quite often tower type, is used to map observed by the skipper of the painting with a specific place on the map with specified coordinates. Ultimately, this helps to establish the location of the vessel on the water surface.

 

Lighthouse, Italy



Despite the development of technology, visual observation remains the most important means of orientation at sea, and because of lighthouse structures give characteristic shape and color, to visually distinguish them from the environment.



To ensure the optical visibility under adverse viewing conditions the beacons are equipped with a strong light source and usually provided with optical devices that serve to focus light in the desired direction and increasing the intensity of the radiation source used. To facilitate the passage of vessels and dangerous shoals, the lighthouse tower may have a characteristic color painting of several bands, so-called "day mark" (eng. day mark), at night apply the sector lights (eng. sector lights), arranged in such a way that allow us to determine which side of the ship approaches the lighthouse.



On-site installation beacons are divided into:

Coastal beacons, installed on the Bank or in the immediate vicinity, e.g. on coastal Islands.

A sea or floating beacons installed on vehicles used away from the shoreline and at the entrances to the port as the pilot station.



By functions of coastal beacons differ on:

Identification (single), serve to indicate a specific point on the ground or water surface, which, in particular, as signs at the entrance to the port or place where ships are changing course, as well as to identify dangerous areas.

Alignment (working always in pairs) — used to indicate a certain line on the map and are used to indicate the change of course of the vessel, for example to enter the harbour or port. In this case you use two lighthouses of different heights. A distant lighthouse is always higher in the middle — so if the ship on the right course, then it is possible to observe simultaneously both the lighthouse, located on the line of course, visually, one above the other. Due to the difference in height of alignment marks can be determined exactly in which direction to make course corrections.



The most famous lighthouse in history is one of the wonders of the world — the lighthouse of Alexandria, built in the III century BC the Greeks and Phoenicians fires mark the dangerous passages.



As the complexity of the design of the beacons as a light source used coal, rapeseed oil, kerosene. An important step in the development of optical equipment of the beacons was the invention in 1820 of the Fresnel lens, allowing to significantly increase the strength of the beacon light in certain directions. Improved and bearing design, there are several types of beacons. The first river lightship appeared in 1729, at the mouth of the Thames, and the first offshore floating lighthouse — after 60 years in the North sea.



The signals given by modern beacons can be:

  • optical beacon lights (incandescent, led); fire beacons is constant, flashing, gruporoble.com, with constant glimpses of the permanent group of flashes;
  • acoustic air— auto, a diaphone, siren;
  • acoustic underwater — underwater bell oscillator;
  • active radio signals, which turns the beacon in the beacon;
  • the reflected radio signals.



In connection with the rapid development of navigation systems, the role of lighthouses in the XX — XXI centuries is falling.



Buoy (niderl. boei) is a float fastened with an anchor on a rope and which is used to determine the specific location in the water.

 

The buoy opposite the public beach

The buoy is limiting and separating. There are several applications of buoy. One of them is the designation of the channel for movement of ships (in order to avoid getting stranded; in this application they are also called beacons). The buoy is also used by underwater divers (diving or not). It is usually made of wood, iron or plastic.



Milestone is a floating warning sign navigation conditions on the seas, rivers and lakes, designed to indicate fairways and fencing navigational hazards.



Milestone is a round pole with a length from 6 to 19.5 meters, fixed on a special float, the so-called sprit-the Buchan. Milestone is positioned vertically relative to the water surface, at the upper end milestones are established distinctive top shape. Marking (coloring) and the shape of the topmark milestones should correspond to a cardinal or lateral systems of navigation equipment. To the lower end milestones attach the chain or rope with a weight (anchor).

 



Southern milestone according to the cardinal system navigation

Often, for better detection, milestones are equipped with radar reflectors, some of installed optical equipment.



Alignment marks or the sites navigation structure contrasting color on the banks of rivers and lakes.

 

The view from the shore on the lead-in alignment marks in the river Vodla

Used to determine the position of the vessel relative to the axis of the fairway. Together with buoys and beacons included in the system of notation of the fairway.



The sections are formed of two or three coastal structures. The color and shape of the sections correspond with the lateral system. The signs are red, white or black. The shape of sign is square, rectangular or triangular. At the top of each sign is a light signal.



The feature of the marker posts is the bad visibility from the other, except the main, areas.



Buoy, Bakan (niderl. baken) is a floating sign, to be installed on the anchor to indicate navigational hazards in the path of vessels or for the protection of fairways.

 



Black buoy



At night on the buoy is usually ignited the fire of the corresponding color.



In the lateral system of navigation signs, buoys mean:

  • white or black, conical shape limits fairway from the left Bank;
  • red color, cylindrical shape — with the right Bank;
  • striped buoy indicates the turning point of the fairway.

About settlements (in places of a mass congestion of lamps) may be replaced with white light green.

 

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»


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