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Fungi is a Kingdom of wildlife that combines eukaryotic organisms that combine some of the characteristics of both plants and animals. Divided into edible, non-edible and conditionally edible (but our topic is not the case, so we will not focus on these categories).

For a long time fungi were related to plants, with which of them brings the ability to unlimited growth, the presence of the cell wall, adsorbtive food, for which they have a very large external surface (not phagocytosis and pinocytosis), and inability to move. But due to the lack of chlorophyll, the fungi are devoid of inherent plant's ability to photosynthesize and have the characteristic of animals heterotrophic type of feeding, delaying glycogen and not starch as a storage substance, the basis of the cell wall is chitin, not cellulose (except oomycetes), is used in the metabolism of urea — all this brings them closer to the animals. And from animals and from plants they are distinguished by the presence of many of the groups decuriones phase and perforations in the intercellular partition.

It is characteristic for mushrooms external digestion, that is, first in the environment containing nutrients include enzymes that cleave in vitro digestible polymers to monomers, which are absorbed into the cytoplasm. Some fungi are able to identify all major types of digestive enzymes — proteases that break down proteins; lipase, which breaks down fats; carbohydrase that breaks down polysaccharides, so they are able to settle on almost any substrate.

Very high biological and ecological diversity of fungi. This is one of the largest and most diverse groups of living organisms that have become an integral part of all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. According to modern estimates, the Earth exists from 100 to 250 thousand, and by some estimates up to 1.5 million species of fungi.

Some of them look quite unusual and can be mistaken for a manifestation of the mystical phenomenon. For example, the mycelium can be adopted for the phenomenon of "circles, no fields," some species of fungi glow and can be mistaken for a Ghost or a wisp, and fungi are toxic and can cause a person mental or neurological symptoms.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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