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Added Fri, 07/10/2016
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Optical phenomenon in which the air in the result of the refraction of light rays in addition to items in their true position, see their virtual images in the direct, inverted or severely distorted.

Distinguish mirages:

  • lower
  • top
  • side

Inferior Mirage occurs when a large vertical temperature gradient (drop it with the height) over a superheated flat surface, often desert or paved road. Usually this "puddle" on asphalte or sand.

Top Mirage occurs over the cold earth when the inverse temperature distribution (air temperature increases with height). Since cold air has a tendency to move up and warm - down, such mirages are more stable. In the difficult conditions of actually existing objects on the horizon or over several distorted images partially overlapping each other and rapidly changing in time, which creates a bizarre picture Fata Morgana (from the ital. fata Morgana).

Lateral mirages occur in the same way that there can be a reflection from a heated sheer wall.

The specific kind of Mirage can be considered a so nazyvaemy "Phantom distant vision" or "Mirage far vision." There is such a Mirage, when earth's surface heats the air masses, after which they go up and cooled. If the top layer of cold air masses owing to various reasons will be warmer (for example, it is here brought wind from the South) and while very thin layer, the temperature difference between them will be quite large, there will be refraction. Light rays which are reflected from objects located on the earth's surface, will make an arc and go back down, but not to his direct source. They are in dozens, and sometimes hundreds of kilometres away. At sea it often happened that the crew saw in front of a projection of the ships that were at this time at a great distance from them. Thus arose the myth of the "flying Dutchman".

Mirage often mistaken for UFOs, ghosts,"the Heavenly city", "the flying Dutchman" and similar phenomena.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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